Seismic methods are geophysical techniques that involve the use of artificially generated vibrations, or seismic waves, to probe the subsurface structure and properties of the Earth. These methods are based on the fact that seismic waves propagate differently through different types of rocks and soils, depending on their physical properties.

The most commonly used seismic method is the reflection method, which involves the generation of seismic waves by a source such as an explosive charge or a vibrating plate. The waves travel through the subsurface and are reflected back to the surface by changes in the rock layers or interfaces. The reflected waves are recorded by a network of sensors or geophones, and the resulting data is used to construct images of the subsurface structure.

Another seismic method is the refraction method, which involves the measurement of the time it takes for seismic waves to travel through the subsurface and reach a receiver. The waves are generated by a source at the surface and travel through the subsurface at different speeds, depending on the properties of the rocks and soils. The waves are refracted or bent as they encounter layers of different properties, and the time it takes for them to travel to the receiver can be used to determine the depth and thickness of the layers.

Seismic methods are widely used in geophysics for a variety of applications, including oil and gas exploration, mineral exploration, engineering and construction projects, and earthquake hazard assessments. They can provide valuable information about the subsurface structure and properties, including the depth, thickness, and composition of rock layers, the presence of faults and fractures, and the location of fluids such as water or hydrocarbons. However, seismic methods can be expensive and time-consuming, and interpretation of the data requires expertise in both geophysics and geology.