GPR works by transmitting a short pulse of electromagnetic energy into the ground using a transmitting antenna. This energy travels through the ground and is reflected back to the surface by subsurface features with different electrical properties, such as changes in the composition or moisture content of the soil. The reflected signals are then detected by a receiving antenna and recorded for analysis.

GPR can provide information on the depth and thickness of subsurface layers, the presence and location of buried objects, such as pipes, cables, and archaeological artifacts, and the structure and geometry of geological features, such as faults and bedrock. It can also be used to map the distribution of water and ice in the subsurface and to identify areas of potential sinkhole formation.

GPR is commonly used in civil engineering, environmental studies, and archaeological research. In civil engineering, it can be used to assess the condition of structures and detect subsurface voids and cavities. In environmental studies, it can be used to map the distribution of contaminants and to monitor the subsurface hydrology. In archaeology, it can be used to locate and map buried features and artifacts without the need for excavation.